Making Democracy Work

LWVIN Position Histories

Election Process

The first statement covers all but one of the positions under "Election Process." All other positions have separate statements.

The 1973 state convention adopted a study of Indiana election laws. The first consensus, on voter registration, was announced May 1974. A second consensus, covering procedures for nomination candidates, was released in December 1974. The third consensus, on election procedures, was completed in March 1975. The fourth phase was a study of methods that would open the primary to greater participation; this position was announced in June 1978. A study and consensus in 1985-86 covered recount procedures. In the 1997-99 biennium, in response to concerns about problems of obtaining enough qualified workers for the polls, the state League studied the issue and adopted a concurrence in the spring of 1999.

At the 2001 state convention, the members voted to review all of the election-related positions. As part of this review, the existing positions were reorganized into pre-Election Day, Election Day, and post-Election Day topics.

In 2003 several changes to the reorganized positions were adopted by concurrence: adding 16 and 17 year-olds to the pool of potential poll workers, support of dissemination of voting information by election officials, voting options for voters whose name as are not on the poll list or who have recently moved and expansion of absentee voting.

Action: The League provided support for the legal action of Indianapolis citizens, which resulted in a ruling that the 60-day township residency requirement for voting was unconstitutional.

In l985, we lobbied for mandatory training of precinct election officials and against the illegal purging of voters from registration lists. In l986, we acted in support of re-codification and revision of the current code on election laws; it included voter registration, absentee ballots, and recount procedures.

Local League members were observers at official recount sessions in several counties in 1986-87 and 1995.

In 1990, we testified in favor of lengthening the voter purge cycle to every four years; this legislation passed. A legislative amendment providing for registration by mail, which was formulated by League representatives, failed.

A constitutional amendment related to voting passed two legislative sessions in the mid-1990s and was approved by the required voter referendum. It provides that voter residency requirements cannot disenfranchise an otherwise qualified citizen entitled to vote in a precinct under federal law and provides alternatives. The League supported this initiative.

The League testified to committees, wrote letters, and met with key legislators concerning the implementation of the NVRA in Indiana between 1993 and 1995. The League remained active with representation at Census Data Advisory Committee summer meetings throughout the 1990s.

In 2001, League representation was recognized as technical advisory and support to the Indiana Bipartisan Taskforce on Election Issues. The League representative helped organize an Election Technology Expo during a public meeting of the taskforce. At the invitation of the Secretary of State, the League had an official representative on the Help America Vote Act Task Force for Indiana.

During the 2005 legislative session, the League testified in opposition to a law requiring that voters present government-issued picture identification at the polls; nevertheless, the law passed. During the summer of 2005 the League filed an amicus brief in support of a lawsuit claiming that the Indiana Voter ID Law was unconstitutional. The law was upheld by the US District Court for Southern Indiana, but an appeal of this ruling has been filed, accompanied by an amicus brief from the League.

These state positions on the electoral process, as well as positions of the LWVUS, provide the basis for on-going monitoring of legislative action and of implementation of election laws throughout Indiana.

History of "Nomination of Candidates"

Adopted 1974. Revised 1978, 2002 and 2008.

Convention 2007 voted to review most positions. The statewide review committee recommended no substantive changes for "Nomination of Candidates." The board issued a reworded text.

For more details of the position's background and the record of advocacy, see above under "Election Process."

History of "Voter Registration"

Adopted 1974. Reorganized 2002. Revised 2008.

Convention 2007 voted to review most positions. The statewide review committee recommended no substantive changes for "Voter Registration." The board issued a reworded text.

For more details of the position's background and the record of advocacy, see above under "Election Process."

History of "Poll Workers"

Adopted 1999. Revised 2002 and 2007.

The position was not included in the broad review initiated by Convention 2007. On March 24, 2007, the board revised the wording.

For more details of the position's background and the record of advocacy, see above under "Election Process."

History of "Dissemination of Voting Information"

Adopted 2002. Revised 2007.

The position was not included in the broad review initiated by Convention 2007. On March 24, 2007, the board revised the wording.

For more details of the position's background and the record of advocacy, see above under "Election Process."

History of "Election Procedures"

Adopted 1975. Reorganized 2002. Revised 2011

Convention 2007 decided to review most positions, "Election Procedures" among them. "Election Procedures" was revised by concurrence, followed by a board vote on January 15, 2011. For more details of the position's background and the record of advocacy, see above under "Election Process."

History of "Election Recounts"

Adopted 1986. Revised 2002 and 2007.

The position was not included in the broad review initiated by Convention 2007. On March 24, 2007, the board revised the wording.

For more details of the position's background and the record of advocacy, see above under "Election Process."

History of "Redistricting"

Adopted 1988. Revised 1989 and 2008.

Since January 1966, the League of Women Voters has had a national position on reapportionment, or redistricting. The word "apportionment" is related to the number of representatives a state has in Congress; it is based on population ratios and is determined by a fixed formula. The word "redistricting" is related to redrawing the boundaries of the voting districts themselves; equitable and fair redistricting is a concern of the state and national Leagues.

In Indiana, the national League position applies to county commissioner districts (three in each county), county council districts, and city council districts (or wards), among others.

According to Indiana law, county commissioner districts in counties having fewer than two second-class cities (89 counties of 92 in Indiana) do not have to meet an equal population requirement; county commissioners in these 89 counties are elected by all county voters, not just those in their districts. However, county commissioner districts are often the basis for drawing jury lists and other uses assuming equal populations, and candidates for commissioner district seats must live in their districts. Also, current law specifies that in the other three counties, the county commissioner districts shall be equal in population.

Delegates to the 1987 state Convention agreed that the law should be clear and consistent and that the national position might not cover the problems in Indiana, which then involved the sequence of redistricting as well as equal populations.

The original two-part program adopted was to study (1) whether to change the specified time sequence of city and county redistricting and (2) whether to require equal populations for all county commissioner districts. The first part of the study led to the following concurrence statement: "Indiana should require local redistricting of county commissioner districts, county council districts, and city voting districts (wards) all to be done in the same year. Within each county, redistricters should work together to draw up and approve the appropriate ordinances at nearly the same time."

The state legislature late in its 1988 session, after the League's study, changed the law to require that redistricting of precincts take clear precedence over all other voting districts and all other local redistricting. In effect, this resolved that part of the League concurrence which sought a better sequencing of redistricting decisions. Therefore, delegates at state Convention in 1989 dropped the part of the position involving the timing or sequence of redistricting.

Convention 2007 decided to review most positions, "Redistricting" among them. The statewide review committee did not recommend changes, and the board issued a reworded text on July 12, 2008.

Action: In 1989 a bill was introduced which proposed equal populations for county commissioner districts and that only the voters in each county commissioner district could vote for their own commissioner.

Beginning in 1990 the state League monitored an interim joint legislative committee, the Census Data Advisory Committee, whose scope included making recommendations about elections legislation to the General Assembly.

In 1991, the League wrote the 89 county commissioners affected by our position, asking them to include equal populations in commissioner districts when they redrew district lines. Also then we developed a local Redistricting Kit to help local Leagues if they wanted to draw new voting districts.

During the 1991 session League representatives were heavily involved in monitoring and testifying at legislative meetings about redistricting. They spoke twice at House Elections Committee meetings and once at a Senate Redistricting subcommittee meeting.

In October 1991 League representatives spoke in "support of reliable, public availability of census data and mapping resources-software and hardware-at the least possible expense and with the least difficulty of access and use" in a successful effort to keep the redistricting-programmed computer at the State Library.

In 1993, 1994, and 1995, League representatives lobbied actively for legislation requiring equal populations of county commissioner districts.

Fiscal and Government Policy

History of "Local Government"

Adopted February 1979. Revised 1988 and 2009.

A study of local government structure, with focus on overlapping services and double taxation in city, township, and county governments, was first adopted in 1975. A second phase of the study analyzed possible alternative forms of government structure, enabling legislation, and special interest legislation. The study was refocused in 1977 to investigate alternative local government forms which would create more productive, accountable, and efficient local government. Member consensus was reached in November 1978, and a position statement was adopted in early 1979.

Local Government" was revised by concurrence in 2009. On April 4, 2009, the board issued the new wording.

Action: The 1979 state Convention directed the League to monitor the Local Government Study Commission, appointed by the General Assembly; the local government chair of the League was appointed to the Commission. For 1980 and 1981, the LWVIN supported recodification as a first step in implementing the local government position. After successful lobbying, the Indiana Code now contains basic enabling legislation for local governments and strengthened "home rule" powers. However, legislation which would grant increased fiscal home rule to local governments or governmental structures was not passed. [See Local Government Finance for League work on this issue.]

The League worked unsuccessfully in both the 1984 and 1985 sessions toward passage of a council-manager option of government for cities to enable them to hire city managers.

Based on this position and a local position favoring increased government consolidation, in 2005 the State Board authorized testimony by the Indianapolis League before a state legislative committee in support of consolidation of police and fire services in Marion County.

History of "Local Government Finance"

Adopted 1984. Amended 1998. Revised 2009. Paragraph added 2011.

In the process of working on its local government position in the 1970s, the League grew aware of the problems of local governments in financing their operations. Therefore, a study on the financing of local governments was approved at the 1983 state Convention, and the position statement was adopted in time for the legislative session of 1985. The issue was reconsidered during a comprehensive study of state taxes from 1995-1999 and the position was updated.

"Local Government Finance" was revised by concurrence in 2009. On April 4, 2009, the board issued the new wording. The final paragraph was added by another concurrence, followed by a board vote on January 15, 2011.

History of "Motor Vehicle Licensing System"

Adopted January 1985.

For many Indiana citizens in the early 1980's the Indiana license branch system, which had existed since 1944 and gave operation of the license branches to the Governor's political party, had become a symbol of poor service and political corruption. League members were interested in both the practical and symbolic consequences of the then-existing system. Many members of the League believed that the license branch system forced involuntary political contributions from persons using the services of the license branch system. Such forced contributions are a violation of the individual's freedom of political choice. The League believes that any contributions to a political party should be based on citizen knowledge and consent. Any mechanism for providing public funds to political parties should be based on this principle and entail full disclosure.

Study of the Indiana motor vehicle licensing system was adopted at the 1983 state Convention. The study provided information on the existing mode of operation and on possible alternatives.

Wide member interest led to agreement by concurrence in 1984; the position statement was adopted early in 1985.

Convention 2007 voted to review most positions, "Motor Vehicle Licensing System" among them. As no statewide review and restudy committee could be formed, the task remains open.

Action: In 1986 the League's lobbying efforts, testimony, and action alert were successful. The League worked for passage of a bill sponsored by the Governor, removing the operation of the license branches from political patronage; it was the last act passed by the 1986 General Assembly.

The bill provided for a gradual takeover by the state of all license branches by July 1, 1988 , established a five-member Bureau of Motor Vehicles Commission to oversee operation, and made license branch employees a separate class of non-merit employees. A minimum of one license branch per county was mandated.

Since passage of the bill, the League has reviewed minutes of the Bureau of Motor Vehicles Commission meetings and monitored the system and legislation pertaining to its operation. In 1999, an interim legislative study committee was created to review the operation of the BMV and the BMVC; the League monitored this committee's work.

History of "Property Tax Exemption"

Adopted 1975. Amended 1998. Revised 2009.

"Property Tax Exemption" was revised by concurrence in 2009. On April 4, 2009, the board issued the new wording.

History of "Tax System"

Adopted 1975. Amended 1999.

The League of Women Voters began its study of taxes in 1957 and has continued to implement its position and expand its studies of public finance and expenditures since then. Its main goal has remained consistent: to support an equitable tax system for financing all public services, including schools (see also the position on school finance). In fact, when it began studying taxes, the League examined taxes for both schools and other public services.

The tax study was reopened by delegates to the 1969 state Convention and was continued in 1971. In 1972 business taxation was added to the study. In 1973 credits and exemptions to Indiana taxes were included.

State Convention 1995 adopted a 4-year tax study. Member agreement was reached in two steps. First concurrence on amendments to League tax-related positions was reached in September 1998. Second, consensus was taken in late 1998 and early 1999 when public and legislative attention was much focused on taxes, a state tax surplus and the legality of the current property tax system.

Convention 2007 voted to review most positions, "Tax System" among them. A completion date for "Tax System" cannot yet be projected.

Action: In 1987 the League testified in favor of an increase in the state income tax and extension of the state sales tax to cover services, as a means for support for an expanded AFDC-Unemployed Parent program, school funding increases, home health care expansion, and an increase in judges' salaries.

In 1997, Governor Frank O'Bannon appointed a large Citizens Commission on Taxes raising hopes that a major tax overhaul would be proposed in the 1999 session. Although the Commission regularly studied a wide range of tax issues, by late 1998 it had reached no agreement on a single package of tax reform. League members monitored the Commission meetings. In 1999, the state League sent a copy of its new position statement to all members of the General Assembly

History of "School Finance"

Adopted 1960. Amended 1970, 1975, 1982 and 1990.

In 1957 the League of Women Voters of Indiana began its study of school finance and has reviewed and worked to implement its positions since then. The main goal has remained constant: to equalize educational opportunities for all pupils enrolled in Indiana 's public schools.

In 1979-81, the League conducted a major review of school finance and its positions and again voted to re-examine its position on school finance, specifically addressing the validity and workability of current funding methods. Once again the League substantively reaffirmed the school finance position reached over thirty years earlier.

The 1989 study illustrates the League's flexibility and persistence. The 1981 study had resulted in the elimination of a previous goal in the school finance position: "increased state funding" was generally agreed to have been achieved. The 1990 position reestablished that goal, increasing the recommended state average share from 2/3 to 75%.

(The next three paragraphs, taken from From Study to Action 2006 , reflect the status at that time.) Extreme variations in per pupil expenditures between school districts remain. In fact, the disparity between the highest and lowest spending schools has actually increased over the period between League studies.

This disparity has resulted in a shifting of the League position regarding equal funding for all students. Past League positions qualified the equalization issue by saying, "Although equal dollars do not necessarily mean equal educational opportunities, variations from district to district should not be extreme." The latest League position allows variations in expenditures only for differences in cost of living.

After study, the position also reverses a prior League position: the League no longer opposes the use of tax referenda to increase local funding.

Convention 2007 voted to review most positions, "School Finance" among them. A completion date for "School Finance" cannot yet be projected.

Action: The League has monitored this issue, testified from time to time on funding bills, and worked with other organizations.

In 1987 League representatives testified on school funding. In the early 1990s, the LWVIN worked with HELP, Hope for an Equal Learning Policy, which was created in response to the inequity of school funding as it related to the New Albany/Floyd County School Corporation.

Litigation was brought in Newton Circuit Court by a group headed by the New Albany school superintendent, alleging the unconstitutionality of Indiana 's school funding formula. Trial was set for September 1992, but in July in exchange for an agreement to dismiss the lawsuit without prejudice, Governor Bayh promised that problems with unequal funding would be addressed in the 1993 session. Several changes were made in the formula during that session.

Justice System

History of "Juvenile Justice

Adopted 1977-78. Amended 1989 and 1987. Revised 2009.

The study of juvenile justice was added to the justice and the courts position in 1975. Two years were devoted to study of state juvenile laws and the operation of the juvenile justice system in local communities. Special attention was paid to the process of moving a juvenile through the court system, to detention, and to probation. Consensus was first reached in the spring and summer of 1977.

The study continued in 1977-78, with emphasis on state correctional institutions for juveniles and alternatives to institutionalization. Consensus was reached and approved in June 1978.

At state Convention in 1989, delegates voted to emphasize and clarify the League's position on detention by adding the sentence, "Guidelines should specify that juveniles shall not be held with adult offenders." The amendment stemmed from League members' opposition to then current illegal jail procedures in which juveniles were routinely detained in adult quarters.

At state Convention in 1991, delegates voted for a two-year study of children in need of services (CHINS) which led to the state position on children at risk (see Social Policy section).

In 1995 state Convention delegates adopted a study of the treatment and rehabilitation of criminal juveniles in the justice system. Consensus was reached, and the position was approved by the state Board in March 1997.

"Juvenile Justice" " was revised by concurrence in 2009. On April 4, 2009, the board issued the new wording.

Action: Early action focused on providing input to the Juvenile Division of the Judicial Study Commission as it drafted a new Juvenile Code for the state of Indiana. The League was instrumental in passage of this new Code in the 1978 General Assembly. We opposed efforts to make major changes in the Code during the 1979, 1980, and 1981 legislative sessions.

Each year bills have been introduced to chip away at the Code. In 1982 a significant change came with the provision that runaways may be held in a secure facility. In 1984 the League supported legislation, signed into law, which allows the juvenile court to place runaways in a local public or private facility rather than with the Department of Correction.

In 1990 the League sponsored a major conference, "Juveniles in Jeopardy," to review problems connected with the detention of juveniles in county jails with adults. The U.S. Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 prohibited the detention of juveniles within sight and sound of adults, but was poorly complied with in Indiana. In 1991 and 1992, Juveniles in Jeopardy conferences were held in two locations in the state to expand public awareness of the plight of juveniles.

Since taking its original position, the League has been pleased to see the development of a system of Youth Service Bureaus across the state. The League networked actively with juvenile advocacy groups, especially the Children's Coalition, and coalitions to achieve its goals. In 1997, League representatives supported a study committee on the issue of juvenile offenders who are waived into adult offender status.

Pretrial Release

History of "Pretrial Release"

The state Convention in 1981 voted to study pretrial release (also called "bail reform'). A statewide study committee prepared background material and a draft of a possible state position, which was submitted to local Leagues for concurrence. State board approval of the final position came in June 1982.

Convention 2007 voted to review most positions. The statewide review committee recommended no substantive changes for "Pretrial Release." On March 7, 2009, the board issued a reworded text.

History of "Unified Courts and Merit System"

Adopted 1965. Revised 2009.

Convention 2007 voted to review most positions. The statewide review committee recommended no substantive changes for "Pretrial Release." On March 7, 2009, the board issued a reworded text.

Action: Shortly after adopting this position, the League promoted a proposed judicial amendment to the Indiana Constitution which became a ballot issue in 1970 after receiving support twice from the General Assembly. The amendment was approved by voters, and in 1971 the necessary enabling legislation was passed by the General Assembly with the League's support.

The League also has acted to support the reorganization and unification of state courts which have limited jurisdiction (justice of the peace, city, town, and magistrate courts) and the creation of a new state court administrator.

In 1983 and 1985 bills were introduced to change the Constitution regarding the nonpartisan appointment of Supreme and Appellate Court justices. The League worked successfully to defeat these proposals. In 1986 the League testified against an unsuccessful resolution to have appellate justices named by the General Assembly, rather than through the commission. In 2003, the League testified against proposed legislation that would have required direct election of justices and has monitored subsequent similar proposals.

In 1984 and 1987 the League helped achieve passage of a pay raise bill for state elected officials, legislators, judges, and prosecutors.

The League and the Indiana Bar Association worked together in a coalition in 1985, planning a 1986 legislative proposal to improve the Judicial Nominating Commission. In 1989 we gave testimony in support of restructuring the trial court system and continued to monitor and take action on legislation to implement a unified court system for Indiana and merit of selection of judges.

Social Policy

History of "Mandatory Kindergarten"

Adopted 2006.

The League of Women Voters of Montgomery County presented to the 2005 Indiana State Convention their study on mandatory Kindergarten for concurrence by the State. The local Leagues of Indiana reviewed the materials during the summer and fall of 2006, and a position statement was approved by the LWVIN board on November 11, 2006 .

Action: In 2007, the LWVIN testified in support of All Day Kindergarten for all children in the State of Indiana while stating that our position supported mandatory kindergarten. The legislature passed a bill to fund all day kindergarten for at risk children. Funding to provide All Day Kindergarten for all children will be phased in over future budget cycles.

History of "Children at Risk"

Adopted 1993. Revised 2007 and 2009.

Convention 1991 initiated a two-year study of children in need of services (CHINS) in order to reach concurrence to expand the existing position on juveniles to include CHINS. LWVUS adopted a national position in 1994.

The position was not included in the broad review initiated by Convention 2007. The board revised the wording on June 23, 2007, and again on March 7, 2009.

Action: In 1994 the League supported passage of the Children's Trust Fund, which provides funds to support local programs to prevent child abuse and neglect. An income tax refund check-off and a license plate were established to support the Trust Fund.

The League actively networked with juvenile advocacy groups and coalitions to achieve its goals. Membership in the Children's Coalition, which focuses on abused and neglected children and their families, was a significant part of League advocacy efforts. In 1995 the Coalition and the League supported a bill for statewide caseload standards for social workers which comply with national standards. In Indiana that would require hiring additional caseworkers and not cutting back on the total number of cases. In 1996 and 1997, the League monitored efforts by groups concerned with "parental rights" to weaken legislation protecting children.

Action: In 1994 the League supported passage of the Children's Trust Fund, which provides funds to support local programs to prevent child abuse and neglect. An income tax refund check-off and a license plate were established to support the Trust Fund.

The League actively networked with juvenile advocacy groups and coalitions to achieve its goals. Membership in the Children's Coalition, which focuses on abused and neglected children and their families, was a significant part of League advocacy efforts.

In 1995 the Coalition and the League supported a bill for statewide caseload standards for social workers which comply with national standards. In Indiana that would require hiring additional caseworkers and not cutting back on the total number of cases. In 1996 and 1997, the League monitored efforts by groups concerned with "parental rights" to weaken legislation protecting children.

History of "Domestic Violence"

Adopted 1994. Revised 2007. Amended 2009.

The League of Women Voters of Indiana adopted a study of domestic violence at the state Convention in 1993. Several local Leagues were already acting on local positions on domestic violence; therefore, there was a great amount of interest in a statewide study.

A statewide study committee prepared material and a questionnaire for local Leagues to submit to local agencies and officials. The survey resulted in very useful material for study and concurrence.

On completion of the study, the committee drafted concurrence statements, which were approved by the state board and sent to local Leagues. Member concurrence was reached in November 1994, and the position was approved by the board December 3, 1994.

"Domestic Violence" was not included in the broad review initiated by Convention 2007. The board revised the wording on June 23, 2007 and again on March 7, 2009.

Action: The League became actively involved in advocacy about domestic violence at its first opportunity. Position statements were mailed in early 1995 to all state legislators. In addition, League representatives testified in 1995 in support of mandatory sentencing for violation of protective orders.

In 1996, the League's Legislative Coordinator worked with coalition partners and legislators and testified in support of legislation, which passed, to create a centralized registry for protective orders, to strengthen the law regarding protective orders, to make battery in cases of domestic violence a Class D Felony, and to require courts to consider domestic violence in child custody cases.

History of "General Assistance"

Adopted 1977. Updated 1986.

After a two year study of public welfare in Indiana in 1964-66, the League of Women Voters of Indiana adopted a position that called for grants to allow those incapable of self-support the means to live in health and decency; assistance to those temporarily incapable of self-support; adequate caseworkers; salaries to attract and retain qualified personnel; and transfer of administration of general assistance from the township trustees to county Departments of Public Welfare.

In 1970-71 the national League studied welfare reform, under the national category "Human Resources" (HR), and reached consensus. The Indiana League combined the state and national program positions on welfare in a statement called "Welfare Reform, Yes." In 1973 delegates at the state Convention voted to drop the state position on welfare, with the understanding that its provisions were implicit in the national position.

By 1975, Convention delegates felt that the earlier state welfare position had become overshadowed by the large national HR program and directed the Indiana state board to make welfare reform a priority item. The state board, therefore, separated the state welfare position into an independent statement.

At about the same time, the state board decided to participate in a statewide coalition to study general assistance; it was called the Citizens Study Commission on Poor Relief. In June 1976, delegates to state Council decided to continue the study of general assistance and to reach member agreement by concurrence. The resulting League position was announced in November 1977. One of the recommendations of the coalition had been to use the terra "general assistance" instead of "poor relief", the League followed with this recommendation, as well as several other recommendations of the coalition. One major exception was that the League did not endorse the coalition's concept of establishing a separate state agency to handle general assistance, adopting instead a position more flexible in language and intent.

The delegates at state Convention in 1985 voted to restudy the portion of the position which had to do with the administration of general assistance. The resulting position statement was slightly expanded but similar to the earlier position; if was adopted by the State Board in 1986.

Convention 2007 voted to review most positions, "General Assistance" among them. A completion date for "General Assistance" cannot yet be projected.

Action: In 1983, the Lafayette Urban Ministry formed the Indiana Task Force on Poor Relief to support transferring general assistance from township trustees to county Departments of Public Welfare, and a bill was drafted for the purpose. The state League, with the help of five local Leagues, held five forums around the state to update members and the public on general assistance and to react to the so-called Gery bill proposal. The bill was filed in the 1984 legislature but did not get out of committee.

Testimony on the information the League gathered at the forums was given before the 1984 Governor's Commission on Public Welfare.

In 1986, the Coalition on Human Services, which the state League joined to represent our general assistance position and other social policy positions, opposed unsuccessfully a bill to permit unlicensed day care "ministry" in religious day care centers.

In 1987 and 1988 League hopes for statewide standards for the administration of general assistance by township trustees were disappointed when proposed legislation failed. In this same period, the League was active in supporting AFDC-Unemployed Parent (AFDC-UP) proposals, in the knowledge that family welfare and general assistance are interconnected.

During the 1997 General Assembly, the League's Legislative Coordinator worked with other members of the Indiana Coalition for Human Services on legislation implementing national welfare reform in Indiana . Child support provisions required by federal law and the establishment of local welfare planning councils were approved.

History of "Health Care"

Adopted 1985. Revised 1989 and 2009.

At the 1961 state Convention, delegates voted to launch a state health care study. Leagues throughout the state studied various aspects of health care, including health care planning, consumer education, health care alternatives, and costs in relation to delivery of services. The resulting position was approved in January 1985.

Delegates to the 1987 Convention adopted a study to update the health care position to include health care services in the home and community, including long-term care services. The position resulting from consensus was adopted in January 1989.

"Health Care" was revised by concurrence in 2009. On April 4, 2009, the board issued the new wording.

Action: In 1985 the League supported a successful bill establishing a statewide cancer registry and a bill which extended health care planning until 1989, including public meetings in initial planning stages. In 1987 League representatives gave testimony on home health care.

A state program called CHOICE (Community and Home Options to Institutional Care for the Elderly and Disabled) was established and initially funded for only 20 counties. For several years it became the focus of LWVIN action. The League supported expansion of the program statewide, and adequate funding. In 1990 the League sent a letter to the Director of the Department of Human Services expressing our concerns about adequate public input into the formulation of rules governing the CHOICE program and about apparent attempts to minimize eligibility for the program.

During the summer of 1991, the LWVIN gave testimony before the Sunset Commission in favor of the CHOICE program. CHOICE was folded into Governor Bayh's "IN-Home Services" plan. League members analyzed and presented testimony in opposition to some aspects of this plan.

In 1992 the League supported the expansion of CHOICE to all counties in Indiana, keeping unspent funds with the program rather than their reverting to the general fund, funding Area Agencies on Aging for administrative and start-up costs, and limiting spousal impoverishment. The League continued contacts with the Indiana Home Care Task Force of Citizens Action Coalition. We opposed the formation of a CHOICE oversight commission as an unnecessary introduction of politics and an attempt to limit the number of individuals served by CHOICE. Local Leagues, assisted by the LWVIN, testified in statewide CHOICE hearings.

Again in 1993 the LWV1N presented testimony in the House in favor of adequate funding for CHOICE, pointing out its usefulness as preventive health care, and supported Medicaid waivers.

Throughout the period 1991-1993 the state League assisted local Leagues and members in their participation in the LWVIJS study of health care delivery and financing. We provided background information and encouraged community participation and education. State board member Donna Giroux served on the national health care committee.

In 1994 eligibility and fiscal standards for CHOICE were changed by the legislature, monitored by the League. In 1996, the LWVIN supported legislation which allows a home health care agency to accept orders from health care professions in other states; the Legislative Coordinator monitored proposed changes to the State Department of Health. In 1997, the League's Legislative Coordinator testified in support of CHOICE and expanded use of home and community-based services in Indiana; the CHOICE program received a substantial budget increase.

History of "Illegal Substances"

Adopted 2007.

The League of Women Voters of Knox County presented to Convention 2005 their study on Illegal/Methamphetamine Use. The convention initiated a statewide study that culminated in a 2007 concurrence. The position statement was approved by the board on August 24, 2007.

Natural Resources

History of "Hazardous Waste"

Adopted 1983.

The League has a long-standing interest in the management of hazardous waste in the state. This interest developed from the League's involvement in water issues, expanded during the study leading to the national position on hazardous waste. A full-fledged state study was approved by delegates at the 1981 state Convention and consensus was taken in 1983.

Convention 2007 voted to review most positions, "Hazardous Waste" among them. The revision is likely to be completed in the spring of 2009.

Action: Representatives of the League have testified frequently to commissions and legislative committees on regulation of hazardous wastes, including rules for the licensing and regulation of waste haulers. The League has worked actively for adequate funding for the monitoring and management of Indiana 's hazardous waste programs.

In 1984 the League supported successful legislation which created a manifest system for generators, haulers, and disposers of hazardous waste and a bill which increased taxes on disposal of hazardous waste.

In 1986 the League actively supported a successful bill against motor vehicle pollution and for emissions controls in Lake , Porter, Floyd, and Clark counties.

Also in 1986, the Environmental Management Act which created the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) as a separate agency passed and was signed into law. The League had supported the establishment of the agency for several years.

League representatives testified in 1987 in favor of a bill to establish statewide hazardous waste disposal standards. The Indiana League produced a 30-minute educational tape dealing with hazardous waste in Indiana . It was used widely throughout the state in citizen education programs.

In 1990 the League actively supported several environmental bills concerned with hazardous waste. In addition the League supported a bill to increase and strengthen IDEM personnel pay rates, which was passed. The 1990 General Assembly also passed pollution prevention legislation which the League supported.

In 1994 the League wrote letters and gave testimony in support of IDEM, which was fighting for survival. We specifically supported adequate funding and regulatory authority for IDEM. The General Assembly did give IDEM authority to fulfill its mandate and funding of $18 million a year through state and federal funds and permit fee revenue.

Also in 1994 we opposed a bill allowing the Amoco Oil Refinery in Lake County to pre-empt the water quality standards set by the state. We wrote legislators and asked the Governor to veto the bill, which unfortunately passed.